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主谓一致重要考点归纳(附详解)

2014年03月26日 02:25:25来源:网络转摘 作者:admin 浏览数:499 责任编辑:

一、主语+介词短语等作主语

“X+with, together with, along with, as well as, but, except, besides, like,including, rather than, more than, no less than+Y”结构中,谓语动词的单复数与之B一致。如:

1. The teacher, with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class, ______visiting a museum when the earthquake struck.

A. was    B. were    C. had been    D. would be

【分析】答案选A。由语境判断谓语动词用过去进行时,且与the teacher一致。

2. All the employees except the manager ______ to workonline at home.

A. encourages    B.encourage    C. is encouraged    D. are encouraged

【分析】答案选D。谓语要与all the employees一致,排除AC;又因all the employeesencourage是被动关系,排除B

3. No one in the department but Tom and I ______ that thedirector is going to resign.

A. knows    B.know    C. have known    D. am to know

【分析】答案选A。谓语动词与主语No one一致,用第三人称单数形式。

4. E-mail, as well as telephones, ______ an important partin daily communication.

A. is playing    B.have played    C. are playing    D. play

【分析】答案选A。谓语动词与E-mail一致,用单数形式。

5. A library with five thousand books ______ to the nationas a gift.

A. is offered    B.has offered    C. are offered    D. have offered

【分析】答案选A。谓语动词与A library一致,又是被动语态,所以选A

二、neither…nor…等对称结构作主语

neither…nor…, (either)…or…, not only…but also…, not…but…等并列结构作主语时采取就近原则:谓语动词的数由与其最接近的那个主语的数决定。如:

1. Not only I but also Jane and Mary ______ tired of havingone examination after another.

A. is    B. are    C. am   D. be

【分析】答案选B。谓语动词跟与其最接近的主语Jane and Mary一致。

2. Either you or the headmaster ______ the prizes to thesegifted students at the meeting.

A. is handing out   B. are to hand out    C. arehanding out    D. is to hand out

【分析】答案选D。谓语动词应与the headmaster一致,排除BC;是将来时态,排除A

三、“a / the number of+复数名词作主语

表示“…的数量“the number of+复数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数;表示一些 / 许多…”“a number of+复数名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数。如:

The number of people invited ______ fifty, but a number ofthem ______ absent for different reasons.

A. were; was    B.was; was    C. was; were    D. were; were

【分析】答案选Cinvited是过去分词作定语修饰people的。

四、one or two…one / a…or two作主语

“one or two+复数名词作主语,谓语动词用复数;“a / one+单数名词+or two”作主语,谓语动词用单数。如:

Only one or two students were late today. 今天只有一两个同学迟到。

One student or two was late today. 今天只有一两个同学迟到。

五、neither / either / any / none of…作主语

“neither / either / any / none+of+复数名词或代词作主语,谓语动词用单数(正式)或复数(非正式)均可。其中any, none后面不跟“of+复数名词或代词,若指的是复数可数名词,作主语时,谓语动词也是既可用单数也可用复数。如:

None of the guests want(s) to stay. 没有一个客人想留下不走。

Neither of us is / are happy about the situation. 我们俩对这种局面都不满意。

六、some / half / most / all及分数等加of…作主语

“all of / the rest of / half of / most of / part of / plentyof / some of / a lot of / lots of+名词,以及分数(如two thirds)或百分数(如thirty percent +of+名词作主语时,谓语动词的数由of后的名词的数决定。如:

______ of the land in that district ______ with trees andgrass.

A. Two fifth; is    B.Two fifth; are    C. Two fifths; is    D. Two fifths; are

【分析】答案选C。分数的分子是two,分母fifths. two fifths,排除AB;谓语要与分数后面的名词the land一致,所以谓语动词用单数。

七、没接of短语的half, all, the rest等作主语

half, all, the rest等作主语,根据意义一致的原则确定谓语动词的形式:所指为单数意义,动词用单数形式;所指意义为复数意义,动词用复数形式。如:

I need only a glass of beer; the rest is yours. 我只需要一杯啤酒,其余的是你的了。

Three of us will go; the rest are staying at home. 我们有三个人去,其余的人留在家里。

八、class, group, family等集合名词作主语

class, team, group, family, couple, club, enemy, army,government, company, firm, crowd, college, university, department等集合名词作主语时,采用意义一致:视作整体时是单数,若指构成各个集体的各个成员时是复数。如:

His family is a big one. 他的家庭是个大家庭。

Your family are quite wellI hope. 希望你家里人都好。

九、trousers等由两部分组成的复数名词作主语

trousers, glasses, shorts(短裤), stockings(长袜),gloves等作主语时,谓语动词用复数,但若a pair of trousers之类的结构作主语时,谓语动词的数由pair的数来决定。如:

The trousers don’t fit him, they are too small. 这条裤子他穿不合身,太小了。

This pair of shoes fits you better. 这双鞋子对你更合适。

Two pairs of your trousers are still at the cleaner’s. 你的两条裤子还在洗衣店里。

十、sheep, means等单复数同形的名词作主语

means(方法手段),works(工厂),sheep, fish, aircraft(飞机)等单复数同形的名词作主语时,采用意义一致的原则:指一种方法或一家工厂时,谓语动词用单数,否则用复数。如:

Every possible means ______ to prevent the air pollution,but the sky is still not clear.

A. is used    B. areused    C. has been used    D. have been used

【分析】答案选C。由every可知,主语means是单数,排除BD;由语境可知用现在完成时的被动语态,排除A

十一、表示度量衡的复数名词作主语

表示时间、距离、度量、重量、金额等的复数名词作主语,被看作整体时,谓语动词用单数;但若与pass, go by等连用,指时间的流逝,或者与spend, waste等连用,指时间或金钱的花费时,谓语动词用复数。如:

Five minutes is enough to do this exercise.

Six months have passed, and we still have no news of them. 六个月过去了,我们依然没有他们的消息。

十二、population作主语

population作主语,谓语动词一般用单数,但若前面有分数、百分数或者表语是复数时,谓语动词用复数。如:

Three fifths of the population here are workers. 这里五分之三的人是工人。

The population in these villages still uses well water. 住在这些乡村里的人依然饮用井水。

十三、the public作主语

the public(公众,民众)做主语。谓语动词用单复数均可,但若表语是复数时,谓语动词就用复数。如:

The public is / are not allowed to enter the court room. 个一般民众不准进行审判室。

The public are the best judges. 公众是最好的裁判。

十四、定语从句的关系代词作主语

定语从句的关系代词作主语,谓语动词的数与先行词一致。注意:“one of+复数名词+定语从句中,从句谓语用复数,但若one前有the (only)时,从句谓语动词用单数。如:

Tom is one of the students who were late this morning. 汤姆是今天早上迟到的那些学生中的一个。

Tom is the only one of the students who was late thismorning. 在这些学生中汤姆是今天早上唯一迟到的人。

十五、强调结构中的主谓一致

在强调结构(it is…that…)中,若强调的是主语,that后面的谓语动词与被强调部分一致。例如:

It is I that am his English teacher. 我就是他的英语老师。

十六、倒装结构中的主谓一致

副词here, there, now, then, up, down, in, out, away, such等、作状语或表语的介词短语或分词短语+谓语动词+主语的倒装结构中,谓语动词的数由动词后面的主语决定。如:

On the wall hang two maps. 墙上挂着两张地图。

On the wall hangs a world of map. 墙上挂着一张世界地图。

十七、there be结构中的主谓一致

there be…结构中,若be后有两个或者几个名词并列时,be用单数还是用复数,也由与be靠得最近的那个名词的数来决定。如:

There is a bus stop close to the school. 在学校附近有一个公共汽车站。

There is a pen, a ruler and two books on the desk. 桌上有一支钢笔,一把直尺和两本书。


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